According to Turkish foreign ministry, Turkish F-16 fighter jets intercepted a Russian warplane that violated Turkey's air space.
The incident occurred Saturday in the Yayladagi region of Turkey's southern Hatay province.
Turkish authorities called in the Russian ambassador and lodged a strong condemnation of the violation.
"The Russian Federation will be responsible for any undesired incident that may occur," the foreign ministry warned.
Russia said the incident was a "navigational error" and that it has "clarified" the matter to Ankara.
Russia has been carrying out air strikes in Syria in support of President Bashar al-Assad.