Russia's first manned expedition to the moon will take place in 2031. Russia aims to send astronauts to the moon every year, RIA Novosti news agency reported, citing a document by the Russian Central Research Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMash), a subsidiary of the Russian space agency Roscosmos.
According to the explanatory note of the document, the first expedition crew will conduct astronauts' activities on the moon and implement tasks set by the Russian Academy of Sciences.
In 2032, Roscosmos plans to send a moon-car to the Earth's satellite, a heavy lunar rover allowing astronauts to move. The second expedition is expected to “test vehicles on Moon surface”.
In 2033, the astronauts of the expedition team are expected to take long-distance trips on the lunar rover and test robotic systems.
The expedition is supposed to be carried out with help of two launches of an super-heavy rocket. The first one will bring a manned spacecraft into orbit, and the second one will involve a takeoff and landing complex, as well as other equipment.
The manned flights will be preceded by two test launches in 2028 and 2029, which will include testing the landing complex and orbiting the moon by a manned ship.